Thursday, 4 April 2019

Top 15 ENZYMES Interview Questions and Answers pdf

ENZYMES Questions and Answers pdf :-

1. Enzyme-driven metabolic pathways can be made more efficient by
A. concentrating enzymes within specific cellular compartments
B. grouping enzymes into free-floating, multienzyme complexes
C. fixing enzymes into membranes so that they are adjacent to each other
D. All of the above
Answer: D

2. Which of the following (s) is/are serine proteases?
A. Chymotrypsin
B. Trypsin
C. Elastase
D. all of these
Answer: D

3. Which of the following statements about enzymes or their function is true?
A. Enzymes do not alter the overall change in free energy for a reaction
B. Enzymes are proteins whose three-dimensional form is key to their function
C. Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering activation energy
D. All of the above
Answer: D

4. Tryprotophan synthetase of E.coli, a typical bifunctional oligomeric enzyme consist of
A. a protein designated A
B. two proteins designated A and B
C. a protein A and one-subunit a
D. a protein designated B
Answer: B

5. What is the specificity of the Clostripain protease?
A. It cleave after Arg residues
B. It cleave after His residues
C. It cleave after Lys residues
D. None of the above
Answer: A

6. The proteolysis rate enhancement by chymotrypsin (~1010 folds) corresponds to a reduction in activation energy of about
A. 40 kJ/mol
B. 49 kJ/mol
C. 58 kJ/mol
D. 88 kJ/mol
Answer: C

7. Which of the following is false statement with regard to comparison between Serine and HIV proteases?
A. Both use nucleophilic attack to hydrolyze the peptide bond
B. Both require water to complete the catalytic cycle
C. Both forms an acyl-enzyme intermediate
D. Both show specificity for certain amino acid sequences
Answer: C

8. In the enzyme-catalyzed reaction shown below, what will be the effect on substances A, B, C, and D of inactivating the enzyme labeled E2?
A —(E1)—> B —(E2)—> C —(E3)—>

A. A, B, C, and D will all still be produced
B. A, B, and C will still be produced, but not D
C. A and B will still be produced, but not C or D
D. A will still be produced, but not B, C, or D
Answer: C

9. The nucleophile in serine proteases is
A. Serine
B. water
C. both (a) and (b)
D. Asparagine
Answer: C

10. The role of Asp 102 and His 57 during trypsin catalysis is to
A. neutralize the charge on the other’s side chain
B. keep the specificity pocket open
C. function as a proton shuttle
D. clamp the substrate into the active site
Answer: C

11. The cleavage specificity of trypsin and chymotrypsin depend in part on the
A. proximity of Ser 195 to the active site or specificity pocket
B. size, shape, and charge of the active site or specificity pocket
C. presence of a low-barrier hydrogen bond in the active site or specificity pocket
D. absence of water in the active site
Answer: B

12. The E.coli pyruvic acid dehydrogenase complex is reported to
A. decatalyze the oxidation of pyruvic acid to acetyl Co A and CO2
B. Catalyze the oxidation of pyruvic acid to acetyl Co A and CO2
C. retard the reduction of pyruvic acid to acetyl Co A and CO2
D. Catalyze the reduction of pyruvic acid to acetyl Co A and CO2
Answer: B

13. Which of the common features are shared between serine and aspartate proteases?
A. Both require water to complete the catalytic cycle
B. Both use a base to activate the nucleophile
C. Both show specificity for certain amino acid sequences
D. All of the above
Answer: D

14. Before they can react, many molecules need to be destabilized. This state is typically achieved through
A. changing the three-dimensional shape of the molecule
B. oxidizing the molecules by removing electrons
C. changing the reaction from a biosynthetic to a catabolic pathway
D. the input of a small amount of activation energy
Answer: D

15. Common feature in all serine proteases is a
A. hydrophobic specificity pocket
B. hydrophilic specificity pocket
C. cluster of reactive serine residues
D. single reactive serine residue
Answer: D

Wednesday, 3 April 2019

Top 15 ENZYMES REGULATION Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

ENZYMES REGULATION Questions and Answers

1. Allosteric enzymes are
A. larger than simple enzyme
B. smaller than simple enzyme
C. larger and more complex than simple enzyme
D. smaller than simple enzyme but not complex
Answer: C

2. Intracellular enzymes
A. synthesize cellular material only
B. synthesize cellular material and perform catabolic reaction
C. synthesize cellular material and perform anabolic reaction
D. only provide energy to the cell
Answer: B

3. Enzyme catalase has non-protein metal as
A. magnesium
B. manganese
C. iron
D. zinc
Answer: C

4. Isozymes or iso enzymes are those enzyme which
A. have same structural forms
B. have different structural forms but identical catalytic properties
C. catalyses oxidation reactions
D. none of these
Answer: B

5. Enzymes are
A. organic compounds produced by living organism
B. inorganic compounds
C. organic as well as inorganic compounds
D. all of these
Answer: A

6. Main function of an enzyme is to
A. increase the activation energy
B. decrease the activation energy
C. maintain constant activation energy
D. none of these
Answer: B

7. Who coined the word enzyme first?
A. Kuhne
B. Pasteur
C. Liebig
D. Buchner
Answer: A

8. The inactive protein from of enzyme is
A. apoenzyme
B. enzyme
C. haloenzyme
D. cofactor
Answer: A

9. The inactive organic molecular portion of enzyme is
A. apoenzyme
B. coenzyme
C. holoenzyme
D. none of these
Answer: B

10. Many enzymes consists of a protein combined with low molecular weight organic molecule called as
A. apoenzyme
B. co-enzyme
C. holoenzyme
D. co-factors
Answer: B

11. Organic molecules that increase the rate of metabolic reactions with themselves changing are known as
A. coenzymes
B. enzymes
C. substrates
D. reactants
Answer: B

12. Protein portion of an enzyme when it is combined with organic molecule is termed as
A. apoenzyme
B. co-enzyme
C. holoenzyme
D. co-factors
Answer: A

13. The active form of enzyme is
A. apoenzyme
B. coenzyme
C. holoenzyme
D. none of these
Answer: C

14. Enzymes can
A. not pass through semipermeable membrane
B. pass through semipermeable membrane
C. dissolve semipermeable membrane
D. none of these
Answer: A

Tuesday, 2 April 2019

Top 10 ENT SPECIALIST Interview Questions and Answers

ENT SPECIALIST Interview Questions and Answers :-

1) What are respectively some remarkable functions of myosin, CD4, albumin, keratin, immunoglobulin, reverse transcriptase, hemoglobin, and insulin?
Myosin is a protein that associated to actin produces the muscular contraction. CD4 is a membrane protein of some lymphocytes, the cells that are infected by HIV. Albumin is an energy storage protein and an important regulator of the blood osmolarity. Keratin is a protein with structural function present in the epidermis and skin appendages of vertebrates. Immunoglobulins are the antibodies, specific proteins that attack and inactivate strange agents that enter the body. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme responsible for the transcription of RNA and formation of DNA in the life cycle of retroviruses. Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that participates in the metabolism of glucose.

2) Dolomite is the ore of which element?
Dolomite is an ore an element magnesium (mg)
Formula (MgCO3 CaCO3)

3) What amount of catalyst is consumed in the reaction it catalyzes?
Catalysts are not consumed in the reactions they catalyze.

4) Explain the formula for Peral Ash?
The formula for Peral Ash is K2CO3.

5) What are the compounds used for extraction of Gold and Silver?
NaCN and KCN

6) Explain How does the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex explain the reduction of the activation energy of chemical reactions?
The enzyme possibly works as a test tube within which reagents meet to form products. With the facilitation of the meeting provided by enzymes it is easier for collisions between reagents to occur and thus the activation energy of the chemical reaction is reduced. This is one of the explanatory hypotheses.

7) Explain What is the difference between essential and natural amino acids?
Essential amino acids are those that the organism is not able to synthesize and that need to be ingested by the individual. Natural amino acids are those that are produced by the organism.

There are living species that produce every amino acid they need, for example, the bacteria Escherichia coli that does not have essential amino acids. Other species, like humans, need to obtain essential amino acids from the diet. Among the twenty different known amino acids that form proteins, humans can make twelve of them and the remaining eight needs to be taken from the proteins they ingest with food.

The essential amino acids for humans are phenylalanine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophane and valine.

8) Which equation gives the relation between specific rate (k) and Temperature?
Arrhenius equation K = Ae-E a / R T

9) What are the main theoretical models that try to explain the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex?
There are two main models that explain the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex the lock and key model and the induced fit model.

In the lock and key model, the enzyme has a region with specific spatial conformation for the binding of the substrate. In the induced fit model, the binding of the substrate induces a change in the spatial configuration of the enzyme for the substrate to fit.

Enzyme Activity: lock and key model induced fit model

10) What is meant by substrates of enzymatic reactions?
Substrates are reagent molecules upon which enzymes act.

The enzyme has spatial binding sites for the attachment of its substrate. These sites are called activation centers of the enzyme. Substrates bind to theses centers forming the enzyme-substrate complex.

Enzyme Activity: enzyme-substrate complex

Monday, 1 April 2019

50 Top DOCTOR Interview Questions and Answers Pdf

DOCTOR Interview Questions and Answers :-

1) Do you know who is Doctor?
A physician is someone who practices medicine to treat illnesses and injuries.
Physicians go to medical school to be trained. They typically hold a college degree in medicine. Physicians once made house calls to treat patients at home, but now mostly see patients in their offices or in hospitals. Physicians may also work for schools, companies, sports teams, or the military. Physicians are often assisted by nurses or other staff.

2) How doctor treat patients?
Physicians treat patients by diagnosing them, or figuring out what is wrong. When Physicians diagnose a patient, they begin by asking questions about the patient’s symptoms such as fever, headache, or stomach ache. They may ask other questions about things like past illnesses or family members who have been sick. They will then examine the patient, often looking at different parts of the body and listening to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope. Sometimes they may need to collect blood, use an x-ray machine, or use other tools to look for things they cannot see when examining the patient. Usually, when they have gathered enough information, a doctor can make a diagnosis and then prescribe a treatment. Often they prescribe drugs.

3) Who is a specialists doctor?
Some doctors specialise in a certain kind of medicine. These physicians are called specialists. They may only treat injuries to a certain part of the body, or only treat patients who have certain diseases. For example, there are physicians who specialise in diseases of the stomach or intestines. Other physicians are “general practitioners” or “family practitioners”. This means that they do a little bit of everything. They try to deal with as much of a patient’s health problems as they can without sending them to a specialist. A doctor who performs surgery is called a surgeon.

4) How communication skills help patient?
Once a patient begins developing trust in a doctor, the chances of him/her recovering increases as his/her confidence in the doctor goes up and s/he begins to believe that s/he can recover.

5) Why doctors should learn communication skills?
Communication skills play a major role in developing patient-doctor relationship. And miscommunication could lead to clashes with relatives/friends of patients over care given to the latter.

6) What is Venous thrombosis?
There are numerous extra-gastrointestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease that occur in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, such as uveitis, conjunctivitis, arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and erythema nodosum. Some occur primarily in Crohn’s, such as gallstones and renal stones due to the area of bowel affected, while patients with ulcerative colitis are more likely to develop primary sclerosing cholangitis and venous thromboses.

7) What is Azathioprine?
Azathioprine takes a number of months to exert its anti-inflammatory effect and therefore has a limited role in the acute management of Crohn’s disease, though it can be started at the time of an acute flare of Crohn’s.

8) What is Bendroflumethiazide?
Treatment of hypercalcaemia can include fluid rehydration, loop diuretics, bisphosphonates, steroids, salmon calcitonin and chemotherapy.
In clinical practice intravenous fluids are the first-line agent used to treat hypercalcaemia, both rehydrating the patient and helping to lower the calcium levels. This is combined with the co-administration of bisphosphonates such as pamidronate, which exert their maximal effect 5-7 days after administration.

9) What is Ceftriaxone?
A cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone is first-line treatment in patients with streptococcal meningitis. Benzylpenicillin would be more appropriate if Neisseria meningitidis was suspected.

10) What is Anti-Histone antibody?
In drug-induced SLE anti-histone antibody is present in 90% of patients, although this is not specific for the condition. Anti-nuclear antibody is positive in 50% of patients as opposed to 95% of patients with idiopathic SLE.

11) What is C-reactive protein?
In SLE the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is classically raised while C-reactive protein levels can stay normal and therefore CRP is also not as useful as the other investigations to monitor disease activity and progression.

12) What are the parameters of life-threatening asthma?

Peak expiratory flow rate of < 33% of best or predicted ? Silent chest ? Exhaustion ? Hypotension ? Bradycardia ? Coma ? Rising PaCO2 13) What are the parameters for diagnosing a severe asthma attack are? ? Peak expiratory flow rate of between 30% and 50% of expected ? Respiratory rate greater than 25 breaths/minute –> Tachycardia: heart rate > 100 beats per minute
Inability to complete sentences with one breath
14) What is terbutaline 10 mg nebulised
In the management of asthma, patients should be sitting upright in bed and receiving 100% oxygen. Salbutamol is given at a dose of 5 mg nebulised, not 500 micrograms. Ipratropium bromide and steroids should then be considered.

15) Medical Abbreviations part 19:

TFTs – thyroid function tests
U – units
UC – ulcerative colitis
V/Q – ventilation/perfusion
WCC – white cell count
16) Medical Abbreviations part 18:

RBBB – right bundle branch block
SIADH – syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
SLE – systemic lupus erythematosus
STEMI – ST-elevation myocardial infarction
STD – sexually transmitted disease

17) Medical Abbreviations part 17:

p.r.n. – pro re nata
PSA – prostate-specific antigen
PSC – primary sclerosing cholangitis
PSGN – post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
RAS – renal artery stenosis

18) Medical Abbreviations part 16:

PaO2 – partial pressure of oxygen
PCA – patient-controlled analgesia
PCI – primary coronary intervention
PCP – Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PCR – polymerase chain reaction

19) Medical Abbreviations part 15:
1) Formerly: National Institute for Clinical Excellence
2) Currently: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
–> NMDA – N-methyl-D-aspartate
–> NSAIDs – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
–> NSTEMI – non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
–> PaCO2 – partial pressure of carbon dioxide

20) Medical Abbreviations part 14:
–> MRI – magnetic resonance imaging
–> MRSA – methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
–> MSH – melanocyte-stimulating hormone
–> NAC – N-acetylcysteine
–> NG – nasogastric

21) Medical Abbreviations part 13:
–> LFT – liver function test
–> LTOT – long-term oxygen therapy
–> MCV – mean cell volume
–> MHC – major histocompatibility complex
–> MMSE – mini mental state examination

22) Medical Abbreviations part 12:
–> J – joules
–> JVP – jugular venous pressure
–> LBBB – left bundle branch block
–> LDH – lactate dehydrogenase
–> LDL – low-density lipoprotein

23) Medical Abbreviations part 11:
–> HONKC – hyper-osmolar non-ketotic coma
–> HSP – Henoch-Schnlein purpura
–> HUS – haemolytic uraemic syndrome
–> IV – intravenous
–> IVDU – intravenous drug user

24) Medical Abbreviations part 10:
–> HAART – highly active antiretroviral treatment
–> hCG – human chorionic gonadotrophin
–> HDL – high-density lipoprotein
–> HDU – High-Dependency Unit
–> HLA – human leukocyte antigen

25) Medical Abbreviations part 9:
–> G6PD – glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
–> GCS – Glasgow coma scale
–> GFR – glomerular filtration rate
–> GORD – gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
–> GTN – glyceryl trinitrate

26) Medical Abbreviations part 8:
–> FEV1 – forced expiratory volume in 1 second
–> FFP – fresh frozen plasma
–> FH – familial hypercholesterolaemia
–> Fi(O)2 – fraction of inspired oxygen
–> FVC – forced vital capacity

27) Medical Abbreviations part 7:
–> DVT – deep vein thrombosis
–> ERCP – endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
–> ESR – erythrocyte sedimentation rate
–> F1 – Foundation year 1 doctor
–> F2 – Foundation year 2 doctor

28) Medical Abbreviations part 6:
–> CPAP – continuous positive airway pressure (ventilation)
–> CPR – cardiopulmonary resuscitation
–> CRP – C-reactive protein
–> CSF – cerebrospinal fluid
–> dsDNA – double-stranded DNA

29) Medical Abbreviations part 5:
–> CDT – Clostridium difficile toxin
–> CIN – cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
–> CLL – chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
–> COMT – catechol-O-methyltransferase
–> COPD – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

30) Medical Abbreviations part 4:
–> BCG – bacille Calmette-Guerin
–> BHL – bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
–> BMI – body mass index
–> BNP – B-type natriuretic peptide
–> CEA – carcinoembryonic antigen

31) Medical Abbreviations part 3:
–> AMT – abbreviated mental test
–> ANA – antinuclear antibody
–> ANCA – anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
–> APACHE – acute physiology and chronic health evaluation
–> AST – aspartate aminotransferase

32) Medical Abbreviations part 2:
–> ADH – antidiuretic hormone
–> AFB – acid-fast bacilli
–> AIDS – acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
–> ALP – alkaline phosphatase
–> ALT – alanine aminotransferase

33) Medical Abbreviations part 1:
–> AF – atrial fibrillation
–> aFP – alpha-fetoprotein
–> ABG – arterial blood gas
–> ACE – angiotensin-converting enzyme
–> ACTH – adrenocorticotrophic hormone

34) How many childrens affected with asthma in UK?
Asthma affects over 5 million individuals in the UK. Approximately 1 million children are affected.

35) Can medication is known to cause hypokalaemia?
The medication is most likely to be a selective 2-agonist such as salbutamol, which leads to a tremor, palpitations, headaches and hypokalaemia at high doses. Washing the mouth after administration of inhaled steroids is recommended, no matter what dose is given. Atrovent is the trade name for ipratropium bromide, which is more useful in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than in asthma, although it can be used in an acute asthma attack.

36) Patient feeling randomly sick with headaches. What could it be?
Persistent headaches are not something that can be ignored, as this could be your body trying to send you a signal that there is something wrong. Often, the history and description of the headache can be quite helpful as you attempt to determine what is the cause of your headaches so that you can know how to get better. If your headaches are associated with certain movements, activities, foods, or other triggers, than this can serve as a clue to you and your doctor to help you feel better. If, on the other hand, your symptoms are somewhat predictable and come on in the same way, then it is also possible to use this information to diagnose the type of headache, which then gets you closer to getting some help with your pain and other symptoms. Migraines are classically associated with light sensitivity, nausea and vomiting, and intractable and incapacitating pain. People with migraines may have a family history of them, and they may have an aura, or symptoms that routinely come before the headache and let them know it is coming.

37) Why should be pain in neck?
There are times that infections can happen in the neck, and these infections can be very serious because of the number of important structures that run through the neck. Some of these include nerves that are relevant to moving some of the muscles of your upper extremities, and others are the very important arteries and veins that run through your neck to and from your head. Often, if people have an infection, they will also have symptoms of an infection, such as a high fever, swelling, redness, etc. These can be more common in those with a history of injecting drugs, as this allows serious and dangerous bacteria direct access to the rest of the body through the arteries and veins. If it has been a while since your last injection, then it may make an infection less likely. Swelling and pain can also happen from muscle spasms that come with poor posture or increased exertion out of the norm. There are also some other possible explanations.

38) Why do in some cases patients feel chest, neck and hands flush?
Certainly the thought of carcinoid syndrome is something that crosses the mind in hearing about your symptoms. That is, however, a rather rare process that would be unusual for most people to have. In such a situation, it is good to describe your symptoms and your concerns to your doctor so that he or she can test for the possibility of something as serious or as rare as that condition. There are many other possible explanations, however, many of which are much more common. It is not unusual for some people to have changes of flushing and some of the other feelings that you describe when they are in stressful or unusual situations. Some of this can sometimes be understood in context of the response that some people have to loud noises or fright, ie, they can faint. This reaction is one extreme on the spectrum of a vagal reaction that can occur in some. On a less extreme note, other can have some of the same symptoms you describe without having something as notable as a syncopal episode. There are often things that can be done to help.

39) Suppose if a patient have abnormal blood on his underwear how you deal?
Abnormal bleeding can have many different causes, but you have provided some valuable information. First, we have to clarify where exactly the bleeding is coming from. While vaginal bleeding is perhaps the most likely, both the urinary tract and the GI tract can also be a source of bleeding. Either of those would have different causes and explanations, with infections and small sources of bleeding such as hemorrhoids being among the most common reasons for abnormal or untimely bleeding. With regards to vaginal bleeding, there is a clue that is suggested by the fact that the blood is bright red in color. In general, this can reflect fresher blood that has not started to be broken down. It may also suggest blood that is coming from a source further down the vaginal tract, although that is not necessarily true. There are different conditions that can affect the vaginal or uterine lining and are common explanations for symptoms such as you describe. There are also tumors that can result in abnormal bleeding, and these tumors can be both benign and malignant.

40) Suppose if patient have unbearable neck to shoulder pain only while on his period. What could it be?
This is a somewhat interesting phenomenon that will take more visits to your doctor to help explain. Your OB/GYN is likely a good place to start, as he or she will be best positioned to help sort out the hormonal element to your symptoms. Another option might be a neurologist or spine surgeon, either of which may be able to help with your symptoms at the level of your neck. An ear nose and throat surgeon may offer some other insight that could be helpful. Whichever you choose, the approach to your problem will likely be different. Primary care and medical doctors are more likely to use lab work and your symptoms to help arrive at an answer, and may use medications empirically to see what helps to make you better. A surgeon, on the other hand, is more likely to listen to your symptoms, complete an exam, and recommend imaging and other anatomic studies that can help to determine what is causing your symptoms. The pain may have a component of something that changes on a monthly basis with your menstrual cycle. This could be a swelling, or even something as simple as a change in the blood flow.

41) Suppose if patient having chronic neck pain for 4 days. Medication and RMT massage have done nothing, pain is 10/10 now. What could it be?
It is not normal for pain to become so severe and fail to respond in any way to conservative therapy, and so your doctor should discuss this with you in more detail to make sure that there is nothing serious that is causing your symptoms. Neck and muscle spasms can be common in some people with a history of c spine injury or trauma, and can be severe and debilitating. They should not be a new onset symptom for most people, however, unless you have had some precipitating event. Massage and things to help the muscles relax is often a great idea to help with some of the mild aches and pains that we can have from time to time, and the fact that you had no improvement is worrisome. Your doctor may entertain other possible explanations for this pain in addition to trauma and misuse injuries. He or she may decide it is important to get some imaging and complete a physical exam looking for things that might be amiss. Shooting pain can be a concern for nerve injury.

42) Suppose if I am patient of acid reflux, how can I get rid off?
Fortunately, there are things that can be done to help with reflux. The most obvious answer is some of the many medications that are available to help reduce stomach acid. Some of the least expensive and most effective are even available over the counter, but should be used after discussing your symptoms with your doctor. There are some medications, such as ranitidine and other anti histamine medications (H2 blockers as they are sometimes called), that can be very effective for many people and have a very mild side effect profile. They are most effective when taken as directed, and the efficacy does tend to decrease if they are not timed appropriately with regards to the meals. Other excellent medications are those that are known as proton pump inhibitors, or PPIs, which can be even more effective. The over the counter doses are effective for most people, but in severe cases prescription strength doses can also be used. These medications also have relatively mild side effects, but should be discussed with your doctor. In addition to these medications, lifestyle changes should be tried before any medications. These can be found suggested in many places. Please speak with your doctor.

Top 20 DISEASE ASSOCIATED with IMMUNE SYSTEM Multiple Choice Questions And Answers pdf

DISEASE ASSOCIATED with IMMUNE SYSTEM Questions and Answers pdf :-

1. The HIV virus infects primarily
A. brain cells
B. cells in the immune system
C. red blood cells
D. liver cells
Answer: B

2. Chronic granulomatous disease results from a failure to perform oxidative burst. This deficiency would be most likely to interfere with
A. CTL killing of viruses
B. dendritic cell activation to become a mature APC
C. infected cell processing of virus peptides
D. macrophage intracellular killing of bacteria
Answer: D

3. Difficulties with somatic gene therapy arise from all of the following except
A. GVHD caused by mature T cells in the transplanted cells
B. inserting a gene so that it will function properly
C. limited life span of more mature hematopoietic cells
D. transducing genetic material into stem cells
Answer: A

4. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) hapten might also bind
A. Leu or Ileu
B. His or Pro
C. Tyr or Phe
D. Ser or Thr
Answer: C

5. Retinoblastoma is due to a mutation in a
A. kinase
B. tumor supressor
C. cyclin
D. viral gene
Answer: B

6. An autoimmune disease is
B. Measles
C. Lupus
D. Mumps
Answer: C

7. If Class IIMHC is not expressed in the thymus, the resulting immune deficiencies would include all of the following except reduced
A. alternative complement activation.
B. CD8 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity
C. macrophage activation to vesicular pathogens
D. IgG synthesis
Answer: A

8. Specific translocations are associated with
A. colon cancer
B. breast cancer
C. pancreatic cancer
D. some leukemias
Answer: D

9. To treat HIV infections using drugs, the major problem is that
A. the drugs that are good inhibitors cannot by synthesized
B. the drugs interfere with normal digestion
C. the virus particles with altered (mutant) proteases arise
D. the drugs are rapidly degraded
Answer: C

10. The primary reason for AIDS, a deadly disease is that it
A. is caused by a virus
B. is caused by a bacterium
C. destroys key components of the body’s internal defense system
D. causes a breakdown of the body’s inflammatory response
Answer: C

11. A selective IgA deficiency would be expected to result in problems with
A. bacterial infections
B. infections following dental work due to bacteria entering the bloodstream
C. mucosal pathogens
D. pathogens which can survive inside macrophages
Answer: C

12. Combined cellular and humoral immune deficiencies result from lack of all of the following except
A. a thymus
B. class II MHC
C. HIV infection of CD4+ T cells
D. transporter of antigen peptides (TAP)
Answer: D

13. An example of an immunodeficiency disorder is
A. thyroiditis
B. rheumatic fever
C. systemic lupus erythematosus
Answer: D

14. Bone marrow given to an infant with SCID must
A. be irradiated to eliminate GVHD
B. contain mature T cells that can begin making immune responses immediately
C. come from a donor that shares some MHC alleles with the recipient
D. come from one of the child’s parents
Answer: C

15. X-linked hyper IgM syndrome, resulting in high levels of serum IgM and low levels of serum IgG, is caused by a defect in CD40L expression. The specific immune event that would be prevented by a defective CD40L would be
A. activation of B cells by T-independent antigens
B. failure of B cells to provide co-stimulation for Th2 activation
C. failure of Th2 cells to provide co-stimulation for B cell isotype switching
D. failure of Th2 cells to provide co-stimulation for B cell proliferation
Answer: C

16. DiGeorge’s syndrome is characterized by the lack of a thymus The mouse model closest to this human disease would be a
A. knock-out mouse for RAG-1 and RAG-2
B. knock-out mouse for a thymus
C. nude mouse
D. recombinant mouse for CD3
Answer: C

17. Which of the Rous sarcoma virus has a homologous cellular protein?
A. c-src
B. v-src
C. v-ha-src
D. v-ha-ras
Answer: A

18. Infants are most susceptible to bacterial infection due to low circulating levels of IgG
A. in utero (before birth)
B. at 0-3 months of age
C. at 3-12 months of age
D. at 12-24 months of age
Answer: C

19. The chemical, typically released by the body in an allergic response is
A. histamine
B. allergens
C. antihistamines
D. perforins
Answer: A

Sunday, 31 March 2019

Frequently Asked DIETITIAN Interview Questions and Answers Pdf

DIETITIAN Interview Questions and Answers :-

1. What is the balanced diet of an adult should be comprised of on a single day?
On a single day, balanced diet of an adult should comprise of
Protein – 50 grams
Fat – 70 grams
Carbohydrates – 310 grams
Sugars – 90 grams
Sodium – 2.3 grams
Dietary Fibre – 30 grams
Saturated Fatty Acids – 24 grams
Total Energy per day – 8,700 kilojoules

2. What dietary fibre is and list out some of the good source of dietary fibres?
Dietary fibre is composed of an edible parts of plants that can neither be absorbed nor digested by the small intestine and moves into the large intestine intact.
Some of the good sources of dietary fibre includes
Fruits: Pears, strawberries, blackberries, oranges, raspberries and all the fruits that can be eaten without peeling of its outside skin
Vegetables: Brussel sprouts, onion garlic, peas, green peas, broccoli, corn, etc.
Pulses: Chickpeas, lentils, beans and whole grains

3. What are the main advantages of using dietary fibre daily?
The advantages of using dietary fibre are
Increase bowel function: Dietary fibres are the insoluble fibres, which increases the laxative property of bowel, and helps an individual to relieve from constipation. It might also help in reducing colon cancer risk; inhibiting the growth of tumor cells by saturated fatty acid, which is produced when fibre is fermented by gut bacteria
Reduce blood sugar level: It also slows down the absorption of glucose level in blood by not allowing complete digestion of carbohydrate you have consumed
Reduce blood cholesterol level: Rice bran or oat bran are some good sources of dietary fibre that prevents fatty acids to convert into bad cholesterol and thus minimizes the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)
Gives satiating feeling: Apart from all these benefits, there are some additional benefits for overweight or obese people who lack satiate feeling resulting in over-consumption of food. Dietary fibre gives satiate feeling without adding any extra calories and also reduces fat level from the body

4. List out some of the dietary minerals included in our daily intake?
Some of the minerals included in our daily intake includes
Calcium: Milk and milk product ( 700 mg/day)
Magnesium: Green Vegetables and Nuts ( 150-500 mg/day)
Phosphorous: Meat, fish, dairy products ( 550mg/day)
Chloride: Salt and salty food (No fixed value)
Cobalt: Seafoods, meats and milk products (No fixed value)
Iodine: Seafoods, shellfish, cod liver oil and milk (130ug/day)
Fluoride: Seafood, tea and water (No fixed value)
Sodium: Salt, cheese, soups (575 – 3500 mg/day)
Iron: Meat, dried fruit, green vegetables + vit C (9-20 mg/day)
Manganese: Tea (1-10gm/day)
Molybdenum: Meat, cereals and milk (No fixed value)
Zinc: Seafood, eggs,pulses ( 9.5 mg/day)
Selenium: Seafood, cereals ( 55ug/day)

5. What is GMO and what are the pros and cons of the GMO food?
GMO stands for genetically modified foods, this type of food is artificially bred under supervision to yield a food with desire quantity and quality.
Heavily Tested: Intense and gruesome testing on animals, scientifically it was proved that GMO are safe to consume
Impact on Farming: GMO enables plants to be modified and grow, even in most bizarre conditions
Cheaper Food: Easier farming process means cheaper food
Increased Nutritional Value: It helps to yield food high in its nutritional value

Health Concerns: There is no strong evidence that tells GMO has no long-term effect on humans health
Ethics: There is a group of people who believes the practice of GMO is illegal and unethical
Safety Concerns: FDA does not treat GMO any differently than conventional food; no special safety regulation or warnings are put in practice
Need for labels: Not just before a decade, rule passed to label all the GMO plants, as it was impossible to
figure out which one is GMO and which one are ordinary one.

6. Is it good to avoid fat for weight loss?
It depends on what type of fat you are avoiding, if you are avoiding un-saturated fats than its good. Otherwise, it may show adverse effect as fat are equally important for functioning of the body. It is scientifically proved that 35% of your daily calorie should come from the fat (virgin olive oil, nuts, seeds and natural nut butters).

7. What should be the intake of vegetables for non-vegetarian?
Although, meat and eggs have their benefits, it is necessary to include some vegetables to your non-veg table. To have a complete diet, non-vegetarian should include at least five to six plant-based meals a week by using lentils, beans or organic tofu as your protein source.

8. List out some of the sources of anti-oxidant?
Anti-oxidant eliminates toxin present in our body, some of the rich sources of anti-oxidant are
Green tea

9. What are the benefits of spices in food?
Spices not only adds taste to our food, but also give nutritional value
Rosemary: It contain essential volatile oils and are rich in minerals and vitamin B. It is used for diuretic disorder, to cure flatulence and to treat neuralgic pain, etc.
Cummins: It contains phytonutrients, essential oil and anti-oxidants
Bay leaf: It is a very good source of many vitamins like niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, etc.
Cinnamon: It has the highest amount of anti-oxidant than any other source found in nature. It is used as anti-septic for teeth and gum
Mustard seeds: They are also rich in nutrients, anti-oxidants and B-complex vitamins
Coriander seeds: It is rich in minerals like copper, calcium, potassium, manganese, etc.
Saffron: It also contains anti-oxidant and anti-depressant properties
Fenugreek seeds: Fenugreek is a rich source of minerals, vitamins and phytonutrients. Apart from that they are also a rich source of dietary fiber, and it is used to cure digestive problems, reduce cholesterol and bronchitis
Cloves: It is considered as a good source of vitamins like vitamin A and carotene, but this should be consumed in a small portion as it may cause acidity and burning sensation if taken in excess. It acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and reduce blood glucose level in diabetics.
Cardamom: It contains essential volatile oils, and rich in minerals. It is used as an anti-oxidant.

10. When dietary supplements can be harmful to an individual?
Dietary supplement can be harmful in following conditions
Using a supplement with medications
Substituting with supplement to the prescribed medicine without taking advice from a physician
Taking excess of vitamins like vitamin A, D or minerals like Iron

Friday, 29 March 2019

120 Top DENTIST Interview Questions And Answers

DENTIST  Interview Questions And Answers

1) Who is dentist?
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a health care practitioner who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist’s supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and in some states, dental therapists.

2) What are the responsibilities of dentist?
A licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative (dental restorations, crowns, bridges), orthodontics (braces), prosthodontic (dentures, crown/bridge), endodontic (root canal) therapy, periodontal (gum) therapy, and oral surgery (extraction of teeth), as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs (x-rays) and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can also prescribe medications such as antibiotics, fluorides, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medication that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.

3) Why is sugar bad for teeth?
Sugar attacks the enamel on your teeth and can lead to cavities. You can avoid the damaging effects of sugar by brushing and flossing your teeth two to three times a day and limiting the amount of sugary foods and snacks you eat and drink.

4) What if someone losing his sense of taste?
There is a natural, age-related decrease in our sense of taste and smell. In addition, certain medications, diseases and even wearing dentures can contribute to a decrease in the sense of taste.

5) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 10)?
Cereals ready-to-eat, General mills, total Corn Flakes – 11.0
Apple juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added ascorbic acid – 10.9
Fruit cocktail, (peach and pineapple and pear and grape and cherry), canned, juice pack, solids and liquids – 10.9
Tangerines, (mandarin oranges), raw – 10.6
Cereals ready-to-eat, KELLOGG, KELLOGG’S Corn Flakes – 10.5

6) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 9)?
Pineapple and orange juice drink, canned – 11.6
Pineapple and grapefruit juice drink, canned – 11.5
Fruit punch drink, with added nutrients, canned – 11.3
Croissants, butter – 11.3
Cereals ready-to-eat, GENERAL MILLS, KIX – 11.0

7) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 8)?
Pineapple, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids – 14.4
Frozen novelties, ice type, pop – 13.7
Crackers, wheat, regular – 13.0
Cherries, sweet, raw – 12.8
Bananas, raw – 12.2
Cranberry juice cocktail, bottled – 11.9
Tangerine juice, canned, sweetened – 11.8

8) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 7)?
Grapes, red or green (european type varieties, such as, Thompson seedless), raw – 15.5
Pears, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids – 15.2
Cookies, shortbread, commercially prepared, plain – 15.1
Grapefruit, sections, canned, light syrup pack, solids and liquids – 15.0
Grape juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened, without added vitamin C – 14.9
Mangos, raw – 14.8
Pineapple, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids – 14.4

9) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 6)?
Fruit cocktail, (peach and pineapple and pear and grape and cherry), canned, heavy syrup, solids and liquids – 17.9
Puddings, chocolate, ready-to-eat – 17.8
Cookies, molasses – 17.6
Pineapple, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids – 16.9
Soup, beef broth or bouillon, powder, dry – 16.7
Applesauce, canned, sweetened, without salt – 16.5
Tangerines, (mandarin oranges), canned, light syrup pack – 15.5

10) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 5)?
Onions, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.5
Bologna, beef and pork – 4.4
Raspberries, raw – 4.4
Peppers, sweet, red, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.4
Peanuts, all types, dry-roasted – 4.2
Peas, green, canned, regular pack, drained solids – 4.2

11) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 4)?
Nuts, almonds – 4.8
Milk, buttermilk, fluid, cultured, low-fat – 4.8
Strawberries, raw – 4.7
Yogurt, plain, whole milk, 8 grams protein per 8 ounce – 4.7
Nuts, mixed nuts, dry roasted, with peanuts, with salt added – 4.7
Peas, green, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.7
Carrots, raw – 4.5

12) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 3)?
Snacks, potato chips, made from dried potatoes, plain – 5.0
Blackberries, raw – 4.9
Tomato products, canned, puree, without salt added – 4.8
Peas, edible-podded, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.8
Parsnips, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.8
Carrots, baby, raw – 4.8
Chickpeas, cooked, boiled, without salt – 4.8

13) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 2)?
Papayas, raw – 5.9
Sweet potato, cooked, boiled, without skin – 5.7
Milk, nonfat, fluid, with added vitamin A (fat free or skim) – 5.1
Milk, reduced fat, fluid, 2% milkfat, with added vitamin A – 5.1
Bagels, plain, enriched, with calcium propionate (includes onion, poppy, sesame) – 5.1
Waffles, plain, frozen, ready -to-heat, toasted – 5.0
Snacks, potato chips, made from dried potatoes, light – 5.0

14) How much sugar is in your favorite foods (part 1)?
Beans, baked, canned, with franks – 6.5
Bread, whole-wheat, commercially prepared, toasted – 6.3
Rolls, hamburger or hotdog, plain – 6.3
Watermelon, raw – 6.2
Miso – 6.2
Bread, raisin, toasted, enriched – 6.2
Bread, wheat – 6.0

15) How much sugar is in your favorite fruit (part 2)?
Kiwi fruit, fresh, raw – 8.99
Peaches, raw – 8.39
Melons, honeydew, raw – 8.12
Melons, cantaloupe, raw – 7.86
Papayas, raw – 5.90
Strawberries, raw – 4.67
Corn, sweet, white, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 4.06
Corn, sweet, yellow, frozen, kernels on cob, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt – 3.59

16) How much sugar is in your favorite fruit (part 1)?
Peaches, canned, heavy syrup pack, solids and liquids – 18.64
Grapes, red or green, raw – 15.48
Mangos, raw – 14.80
Bananas, raw – 12.23
Apple juice, canned or bottled, unsweetened – 10.90
Apples, raw, with skin – 10.39
Peaches, canned, juice pack, solids and liquids – 10.27
Blueberry, raw – 9.96
Apricots, raw – 9.23
Plums, raw – 9.92

17) How much sugar is in kid stuff?
Cheese Whiz – 2g per 30g serving (2 tbsp)
Kraft chunky peanut butter – 1g per 15g (1 tbsp)
Honey – 16g per 15g (1 tbsp)
Heinz ketchup – 4g per 15g (1 tbsp)
Classico pasta sauce – 6g per 125mL

18) How does sugar damage teeth?
Sugar acts like an acid dissolving the enamel on teeth. Each time you eat a snack containing sugar, the resulting acid attack can last up to 20 minutes. The naturally-occurring bacteria in the mouth use sugar as energy to multiply and stick themselves to the surface of a tooth. Over time, this turns into plaque and continues to eat away at the tooth’s enamel. Tiny holes will eventually be made in the enamel. These are cavities. Left un-treated cavities will continue to grow.

19) What are the causes of receding gums?
–> Overzealous toothbrushing:
Brushing too hard around the gum line, or just brushing with bristles that are too hard, can erode gums.

–> Tooth grinding (a.k.a. bruxism):
Some people grind so hard that the pressure accelerates gum erosion. In many cases, your dentist can shave down a tooth that is causing your bite to hit against another tooth. In other cases, you may need to get a customized mouth guard to wear at night (when most grinding and clenching occurs) to prevent further damage.

–> Gum disease:
This is an infection of the gums that occurs when bacteria become lodged between the tooth and the gum. The bacteria eventually eat away at the bone and the supporting tissues at the base of the tooth. As the bone recedes, so does the surrounding gum tissue.

20) Tell me which toothbrush is better, a manual toothbrush or an electric one?
Either kind of brush is fine, but you are more likely to spend the right amount of time brushing-two to three minutes-when youre using an electric toothbrush, says Barbara Ann Rich, a spokesperson for the Academy of General Dentistry and a dentist in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. (Manual brushes average less than one minute.) Whichever you use, choose one with soft bristles. Others may be too abrasive and could lead to receding gums. No matter what kind of brush you choose, be sure to floss daily.

21) How to treated with dry mouth?
–> Suck on sugar-free candy or chew sugar-free gum.
–> Drink plenty of water to help keep your mouth moist.
–> Brush with a fluoride toothpaste, use a fluoride rinse, and visit your dentist regularly.
–> Breathe through your nose, not your mouth, as much as possible.
–> Use a room vaporizer to add moisture to the bedroom air.
–> Use an over-the-counter artificial saliva substitute.

22) Is dry mouth can be a problem?
Dry mouth also raises your risk of gingivitis (gum disease), tooth decay, and mouth infections, such as thrush. Dry mouth can also make it hard to wear dentures.

23) List the symptoms of dry mouth?
–> A sticky, dry feeling in the mouth
–> Frequent thirst
–> Sores in the mouth; sores or split skin at the corners of the mouth; cracked lips
–> A dry feeling in the throat
–> A burning or tingling sensation in the mouth and especially on the tongue
–> A dry, red, raw tongue
–> Problems speaking or trouble tasting, chewing, and swallowing
–> Hoarseness, dry nasal passages, sore throat
–> Bad breath

24) Which kind of lifestyle causes dry mouth?
Smoking or chewing tobacco can affect how much saliva you make and aggravate dry mouth. Breathing with your mouth open a lot can also contribute to the problem.

25) What are the side effect of certain medical treatments which causes dry mouth?
Damage to the salivary glands, the glands that make saliva, can reduce the amount of saliva produced. For example, the damage could stem from radiation to the head and neck, and chemotherapy treatments, for cancer.

26) What are the side effect of diseases and infections which causes dry mouth?
Dry mouth can be a side effect of medical conditions, including Sjogren’s syndrome, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, anemia, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and mumps.

27) What are the side effect of certain medications which causes dry mouth?
Dry mouth is a common side effect of many prescription and nonprescription drugs, including drugs used to treat depression, anxiety, pain, allergies, and colds (antihistamines and decongestants), obesity, acne, epilepsy, hypertension (diuretics), diarrhea, nausea, psychotic disorders, urinary incontinence, asthma (certain bronchodilators), and Parkinson’s disease. Dry mouth can also be a side effect of muscle relaxants and sedatives.

28) What are the causes of dry mouth?
–> Side effect of certain medications.
–> Side effect of certain diseases and infections.
–> Side effect of certain medical treatments.
–> Nerve damage.
–> Dehydration.
–> Surgical removal of the salivary glands.
–> Lifestyle.

29) What are the symptoms of malocclusion?
The most obvious sign is teeth that are crooked or stick out. But there are many different types of malocclusion. For example, some people have buck teeth (called an overjet). This means that the upper front teeth are pushed outward. Some people have an underbite. Their lower front teeth sit farther forward than their upper front teeth.

30) Tell me what causes malocclusion?
Malocclusion is usually caused by problems with the shape or size of the jaw or teeth. A common cause is having too much or too little room in the jaw. If a child’s jaw is small, the teeth may grow in crowded or crooked. If there’s too much space in the jaw, the teeth may drift out of place.

31) What is malocclusion?
Malocclusion means having crooked teeth. Bite refers to the way the upper and lower teeth line up. In a normal bite, the upper teeth sit slightly forward of the lower teeth. Very few people have a perfect bite.

32) What is tooth extraction?
A tooth that is severely damaged may need to be removed. A surgeon who specializes in surgeries of the mouth (oral and maxillofacial surgeon) or your dentist can remove a tooth.

33) What is aligners for teeth?
Everybody wants a great smile, but a lot of us need help getting there. More and more people are having success with clear orthodontic devices called aligners.

34) Can good dental hygiene reduces the amount of bacteria in your blood stream?
yes. Every time you brush your teeth you release some bacteria into your mouth. That’s not usually a problem. But when your gums are inflamed from gingivitis or other problems, you release a much higher load of bacteria, and that can contribute to health problems. The best way to prevent inflammation and gum disease is to brush and floss your teeth regularly.

35) Is vitamin deficiencies can be seen in the mouth?
Yes. Not getting enough iron can cause sores at the corners of the mouth, and can lead to a sore tongue. Vitamin C deficiency causes gums to easily bruise and bleed, and may lead to tooth loss. Vitamin D deficiency boosts the risk of jaw fracture and gum disease.

36) Will gum disease during pregnancy can cause premature birth?
Yes. Some studies show gum disease to be a risk factor for preterm/low birth weight; however, few have looked that the impact of prevention and treatment on pregnancy outcomes. Other studies have not found an association and do not support the findings that gum disease is a risk factor for preterm/low birth weight babies.
Now, pregnant women have even more reason to shun cigarettes. Smoking is a big risk factor for developing gum disease.

37) Can a women with osteoporosis have weak bones but strong teeth?
No. Older women can lose their pearly whites to osteoporosis. When bone thinning strikes, typically after menopause, the jaw isn’t spared; its tooth sockets may become too weak to hold the teeth.

38) Is bad breath can be a sign of diabetes?
No. Diabetes doesn’t cause bad breath, but it can cause “acetone breath,” often described as smelling sweet or fruity. Another telltale sign: lots of gum inflammation, despite regular flossing and brushing. Dentists who see these symptoms often refer patients to a doctor to check for diabetes. That’s because uncontrolled diabetes hampers the body’s ability to fight off bacterial infection, which can lead to runaway gum disease.

39) Can people with bad teeth and gums are more likely to develop heart disease?
Yes. Several large studies suggest a possible link between the health of your teeth and gums and heart disease. Researchers find that gum disease and health problems such as heart disease, stroke, and pneumonia are associated. These studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship. Well-controlled, large studies are needed to establish if a relationships exists and if treating gum disease affects general health.

40) Can binge eating is wreck teeths?
Binge eating often involves excessive amounts of sweets, which can lead to tooth decay. Binging and purging (bulimia nervosa) can do even more damage to dental health. The strong acids found in vomit can erode teeth, making them brittle and weak. These acids also cause bad breath. Bulimia can lead to a variety of serious health problems, so be sure to talk to your doctor if you have been purging.

41) Can drinking white wine is harmful for teeths?
You might think sticking to white wine would spare your teeth. But the acids still weaken the enamel, leaving the teeth porous and vulnerable to staining from other beverages, such as coffee. Swishing with water after drinking or using toothpaste with a mild whitening agent can fight the staining effects of red and white wines.

42) Can drinking red wine harmful for teeths?
The acids in wine eat away at tooth enamel, creating rough spots that make teeth more vulnerable to staining. Red wine also contains a deep pigment called chromogen and tannin’s, which help the color stick to the teeth. This combination makes it easy for the wine’s red color to stay with you long after your glass is empty.

43) Can smoking is also harmful for teeth?
Cigarettes, as well as other tobacco products, can stain teeth and cause them to fall out as a result of gum disease. Tobacco can also cause cancer of the mouth, lips, and tongue. If you were looking for one more reason to quit, think of your smile.

44) Can drinking coffee is harmful for teeths?
Coffee’s dark color and acidity can cause yellowing of the teeth over time. Fortunately, it’s one of the easiest stains to treat with various whitening methods. Talk to your dentist if you’re concerned about discoloration of your teeth.

45) Can chewing on pencil is harmful for teeths?
Do you ever chew on your pencil when concentrating on work or studies? Like crunching on ice, this habit can cause teeth to chip or crack. Sugarless gum is a better option when you feel the need to chew. It will trigger the flow of saliva, which can make teeth stronger and protect against enamel-eating acids.

46) Can constant snackings are harmful for teeths?
Snacking produces less saliva than a meal, leaving food bits in your teeth for hours longer. Avoid snacking too frequently, and stick to snacks that are low in sugar and starch — for example, carrot sticks.

47) Can potato chips causes wreck teeth?
The bacteria in plaque will also break down starchy foods into acid. This acid can attack the teeth for the next 20 minutes — even longer if the food is stuck between the teeth or you snack often. You might want to floss after eating potato chips or other starchy foods that tend to get stuck in the teeth.

48) Can fruit juice causes wreck teeth?
Fruit juice is loaded with vitamins and antioxidants, but unfortunately most juices are also loaded with sugar. Some juices can have as much sugar per serving as soda. For example, there are only 10 more grams of sugar in orange soda than in orange juice. Fruits are naturally sweet, so look for juice that has no added sugar. You can also reduce the sugar content by diluting juice with some water.

49) Can sports drinks causes wreck teeth?
There’s no doubt a cold sports drink is refreshing after a good workout. But these drinks are usually high in sugar. Like soda or candy, sugary sports drinks create an acid attack on the enamel of your teeth. Drinking them frequently can lead to decay. A better way to stay hydrated at the gym is to chug sugar-free, calorie-free water.

50) Can opening stuff (like, bottle caps or plastic packaging) with teeth wreck teeth?
Opening bottle caps or plastic packaging with your teeth may be convenient, but this is one habit that makes dentists cringe. Using your teeth as tools can cause them to crack or chip. Instead, keep scissors and bottle openers handy. Bottom line, your teeth should only be used for eating.

51) Can soda wreck teeth?
Candy isn’t the only culprit when it comes to added sugar. Sodas can have up to 11 teaspoons of sugar per serving. To add insult to injury, sodas also contain phosphoric and citric acids, which eat away at tooth enamel. Diet soft drinks let you skip the sugar, but they may have even more acid in the form of the artificial sweeteners.

52) Can gummy candy wreck teeth?
All sugary treats promote tooth decay, but some candies are harder to bear. Gummies stick in the teeth, keeping the sugar and resulting acids in contact with your enamel for hours. If your day just isn’t the same without a gummy critter, pop a couple during a meal instead of as a separate snack. More saliva is produced during meals, which helps rinse away candy bits and acids.

53) Can chewing ice wreck teeth?
It’s natural and sugar free, so you might think ice is harmless. But munching on hard, frozen cubes can chip or even crack your teeth. And if your mindless chomping irritates the soft tissue inside a tooth, regular toothaches may follow. Hot foods and cold foods may trigger quick, sharp jabs of pain or a lingering toothache. Next time you get the urge for ice, chew some sugarless gum instead.

54) Can playing sports with no mouth guard wreck teeth?
Whether you play football, hockey, or any other contact sport, don’t get in the game without a mouth guard. This is a piece of molded plastic that protects the upper row of teeth. Without it, your teeth could get chipped or even knocked out when the action gets rough. Self-fitting mouth guards may be purchased at a store, or you can have one custom made by your dentist.

55) Can bedtime bottles wreck teeth?
It’s never too early to protect teeth. Giving a baby a bedtime bottle of juice, milk, or formula, can put new teeth on a path to decay. The baby may become used to falling asleep with the bottle in his or her mouth, bathing the teeth in sugars overnight. It’s best to keep bottles out of the crib.

56) Can tongue piercings wreck teeth?
Tongue piercings may be trendy, but biting down on the metal stud can crack a tooth. Lip piercings pose a similar risk. And when metal rubs against the gums, it can cause gum damage that may lead to tooth loss. The mouth is also a haven for bacteria, so piercings raise the risk of infections and sores. Bottom line, discuss the health risks with your dentist first.

57) Can grinding teeth wreck teeth?
Teeth grinding, or bruxism, can wear teeth down over time. It is most often caused by stress and sleeping habits. This makes it hard to control. Avoiding hard foods during the day can reduce pain and damage from this habit. Wearing a mouth guard at night can prevent the damage caused by grinding while sleeping.

58) Can cough drops wreck teeth?
Just because cough drops are sold in the medicine aisle doesn’t mean they’re healthy. Most are loaded with sugar. So after soothing your throat with a lozenge, be sure to brush well. Whether the sugar comes from a cough drop or a hard candy, it reacts with the sticky plaque that coats your teeth. Then bacteria in the plaque convert the sugar into an acid that eats away at tooth enamel. Hello, cavities.

59) When root canal procedure is performed?
A root canal procedure is performed when the nerve of the tooth becomes infected or the pulp becomes damaged. During a root canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed, and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed.

60) What is root canal therapy?
Root canal therapy is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or infected.

61) What are the alternatives of root canal?
The only alternative to a root canal procedure is having the tooth extracted. The tooth would then be replaced with a bridge, implant, or removable partial denture to restore chewing function and prevent adjacent teeth from shifting. These alternatives not only are more expensive than a root canal procedure but require more treatment time and additional procedures to adjacent teeth and supporting tissues.

62) Explain the complications of a root canal?
–> More than the normally anticipated number of root canals in a tooth (leaving one of them uncleaned)
–> An undetected crack in the root of a tooth
–> A defective or inadequate dental restoration that has allowed bacteria to get past the restoration into the inner aspects of the tooth and recontaminate the area
–> A breakdown of the inner sealing material over time, allowing bacteria to recontaminate the inner aspects of the tooth

63) Tell me the signs which indicate that root canal therapy is needed?
–> Severe toothache pain upon chewing or application of pressure
–> Prolonged sensitivity (pain) to hot or cold temperatures (after the heat or cold has been removed)
–> Discoloration (darkening) of the tooth
–> Swelling and tenderness in nearby gums
–> A persistent or recurring pimple on the gums

64) Tell me what damages a tooth’s nerve and pulp in the first place?
A tooth’s nerve and pulp can become irritated, inflamed, and infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures on a tooth, large fillings, a crack or chip in the tooth, or trauma to the face.

65) Tell me why does the pulp need to be removed?
When nerve tissue or pulp is damaged, it breaks down, and bacteria begin to multiply within the pulp chamber. The bacteria and other decayed debris can cause an infection or abscessed tooth. An abscess is a pus-filled pocket that forms at the end of a tooth’s root. In addition to an abscess, an infection in the root canal of a tooth can cause:
–> Swelling that may spread to other areas of the face, neck, or head
–> Bone loss around the tip of the root
–> Drainage problems extending outward from the root. A hole can occur through the side of the tooth, with drainage into the gums or through the cheek into the skin.

66) What is dental pulp?
The pulp or pulp chamber is the soft area within the center of the tooth. The tooth’s nerve lies within root canals, which lie within the roots or “legs” of the tooth. The root canals travel from the tip of the tooth’s root into the pulp chamber, which also contains blood vessels and connective tissue that nourish the tooth.
A tooth’s nerve is not vitally important to a tooth’s health and function after the tooth has emerged through the gums. Its only function is sensory to provide the sensation of heat or cold. The presence or absence of a nerve will not affect the day-to-day functioning of the tooth.

67) Can grills cause problems?
Experts don’t know yet if this fashion statement is bad for your teeth. But bonding a decorative metal cover to the teeth with glue not meant for use in your mouth can do damage. And a grill made from less expensive metal than gold or silver could irritate your mouth. Always remove a grill before you eat, and make sure you keep it, and your teeth, clean.

68) What is the mean of “no room to floss”?
No matter how tight the fit, there should always be room for floss between your teeth. If not, you may need to switch to a thinner floss or a waxed one. You can also try a different kind of tool, such as a looped flosser or a dental pick. Experiment until you find a product that works for you, and then use it every day. Flossing is a must for good dental health.

69) What is wisdom teeth problems?
If your dentist says your wisdom teeth, or third molars, came in problem-free, count yourself lucky. Most people 90% have at least one wisdom tooth that’s impacted, or not able to fully grow in. Problems with your wisdom teeth can cause cavities, damage to neighboring teeth, and gum disease. Wisdom teeth generally come in between the ages of 17 and 25. Your dentist should track their progress. If they become a problem, you may need to get them removed.

70) How to clenching or grinding your teeth?
Grinding your teeth is called bruxism. Stress is one of the causes. Misaligned teeth or sleep issues can also be culprits among adults. (Among kids, causes can include allergies.) Bruxism can give you headaches, a sore jaw, and cracked or loose teeth. If you grind your teeth at night, ask your dentist to fit you with a mouth guard. If it’s a daytime problem, try meditation, exercise, or other ways to curb stress.

71) What is gum problem?
You might be in the early stages of gum disease (gingivitis) or in the more advanced stage (periodontists). A buildup of plaque, a sticky bacteria, below the gum line causes it. Left untreated, periodontists can cause bone loss, and your teeth might shift or become loose. That can make it harder to chew and even speak. To avoid gum disease, brush and floss daily, and see your dentist for regular cleanings.

72) What is gap between Teeth?
You may not consider a gap between the front teeth a problem at all. Famous people who sport the look include singer Madonna, model Lauren Hutton, and football player turned TV co-host. If you want to correct it, though, your options include orthodontics to move teeth closer together and cosmetic solutions like veneers or bonding.

73) What is crooked teeth?
The fix orthodontia isn’t just for kids. And straightening crooked teeth and aligning your bite doesn’t just make for a prettier smile. It can be an key part of improving overall dental health, relieving symptoms like jaw pain. Orthodontists may use braces (metal or trays), aligners, and retainers.

74) What is hyperdontia?
You had 20 primary, or “baby,” teeth, and you now have 32 adult teeth. It’s rare, but some people have extra teeth, which is called hyperdontia. People who have it usually also have another condition, such as a cleft palate or Gardner’s Syndrome (which forms tumors that aren’t cancer). The treatment is to get the extra teeth removed and use orthodontics to correct the bite.

75) What is sensitive to cold?
Ice cream should taste good, not make you wince when the cold hits your teeth. The first step is to find the cause. It could be cavities, worn tooth enamel or fillings, gum disease, fractured teeth, or exposed roots. Once your dentist figures out the problem, you might need a filling, a root canal, or treatment of your gums to replace tissue lost at the root. Or you might just need a desensitizing toothpaste or strip, or a fluoride gel.

76) What is cracked tooth?
You were playing football without a mouth guard, or chewing, or maybe you don’t know how it happened, but now you’ve got a cracked molar. Can your dentist save the tooth? It depends. If the crack is just on the surface, a filling may do the trick. But if the tooth is sensitive to hot and cold, the problem is more complex. Try to chew on the other side until you see your dentist. If the crack is above the gum line, you may need a root canal and a crown. A deeper crack means the tooth must be pulled though.

77) What is impacted teeth?
An adult tooth that doesn’t come in properly is “impacted.” It usually happens when a tooth is stuck against another tooth, bone, or soft tissue. If it isn’t bothering you, a dentist may recommend leaving it alone. But if it hurts or may cause problems later on, an oral surgeon can remove it.

78) What is the mean of chipped tooth?
It’s a type of dental injury. An accident can cause a chip. So can something much less dramatic, like chomping popcorn. The fix depends on whether the pulp, or part of the tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves, is damaged. If it’s not, your dentist will bond a strong resin material to the tooth, replacing the chipped area. If the pulp is at risk, you may need a root canal followed by a veneer or crown.

79) What is Cavities?
These little holes in your teeth are bad news. You get them when a sticky bacteria, called plaque, builds up on your teeth, slowly destroying the hard outer shell, called enamel. Adults can also have problems with tooth decay at the gum line and around the edges of earlier fillings. To prevent it, brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste, limit snacks, floss daily, and keep up with your dental appointments. Ask your dentist if you should use a sealant or a fluoride rinse.

80) What are stained teeth?
The right approach will remove many stains. Foods, medications, tobacco, and trauma are some of the things that can discolor your teeth. You have three options for whitening them. Your dentist can use a whitening agent and a special light in his office. Or you can bleach them at home with a plastic tray and gel from your dentist or a store. The simplest choice, whitening toothpaste, only removes surface stains.

81) What is tooth sensitivity?
When one or more teeth become sensitive to hot or cold, it may mean the dentin is exposed.

82) What is bruxism?
Bruxism also called Teeth grinding Stress. Anxiety, or sleep disorders can cause teeth grinding, usually during sleep. A dull headache or sore jaw are symptoms.

83) What is underbite?
The lower teeth protrude significantly past the upper teeth.

84) What is overbite?
The upper teeth protrude significantly over the lower teeth.

85) What is tartar?
If plaque is not removed, it mixes with minerals to become tartar, a harder substance. Tartar requires professional cleaning for removal.

86) What is plaque?
A sticky, colorless film made of bacteria and the substances they secrete. Plaque develops quickly on teeth after eating sugary food, but can be easily brushed off.

87) What is gingivitis?
Inflammation of the surface portion of the gums, around and between the crowns of the teeth. Plaque and tartar buildup can lead to gingivitis.

88) What is periodontitis?
Inflammation of the deeper structures of the teeth (periodontal ligament, jawbone, and cementum). Poor oral hygiene is usually to blame.

89) What is tooth decay?
A general name for disease of the teeth, including cavities and caries.

90) What are Cavities?
Bacteria evade removal by brushing and saliva and damage the enamel and deeper structures of teeth. Most cavities occur on molars and premolars.

91) What are wisdom teeth?
Wisdom teeth or third molars 4 in total. These teeth erupt at around age 18, but are often surgically removed to prevent displacement of other teeth.

92) What are Molars?
Molars are 8 in total. Flat teeth in the rear of the mouth, best at grinding food.

93) What are Premolars?
Premolars are 8 in total. Teeth between the canines and molars.

94) What are Canines?
Canines are 4 in total. The pointed teeth just outside the incisors.

95) What is Incisors?
Incisors are 8 in total. The middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws.

96) How many teethes normal adult mouth has?
A normal adult mouth has 32 teeth, which (except for wisdom teeth) have erupted by about age 13.

97) What is periodontal ligament?
Tissue that helps hold the teeth tightly against the jaw.

98) What is cementum?
A layer of connective tissue that binds the roots of the teeth firmly to the gums and jawbone.

99) What is pulp?
The softer, living inner structure of teeth. Blood vessels and nerves run through the pulp of the teeth.

100) What is dentin?
A layer underlying the enamel. Dentin is made of living cells, which secrete a hard mineral substance.

101) What is Enamel?
The hardest, white outer part of the tooth. Enamel is mostly made of calcium phosphate, a rock-hard mineral.

102) How do I know which toothpastes choose to use?
Choose the toothpaste that tastes and feels best. Gel or paste, wintergreen or spearmint all work alike. If you find that certain ingredients are irritating to your teeth, cheeks or lips, or if your teeth have become more sensitive, or if your mouth is irritated after brushing, try changing toothpastes.
Considering other properties of toothpaste such as whitening toothpastes, tartar-control, gum care, desensitizing, etc.

103) Suppose if patient have dentophobia (a terrible fear of going to the dentist) what should patient do?
There are a number of strategies that can be used to help reduce fear, anxiety, and pain. These strategies include use of medications (to either numb the treatment area or sedatives or anesthesia to help you relax), use of lasers instead of the traditional drill for removing decay, application of a variety of mind/body pain and anxiety-reducing techniques (such as guided imagery, biofeedback, deep breathing, acupuncture, and other mental health therapies), and perhaps even visits to a dentophobia clinic or a support group.

104) What is Recontouring?
Recontouring or reshaping of the teeth (also called odontoplasty, enameloplasty, stripping, or slenderizing) is a procedure in which small amounts of tooth enamel are removed to change a tooth’s length, shape or surface.

105) What is Veneers?
Veneers (also sometimes called porcelain veneers or dental porcelain laminates) are wafer-thin, custom-made shells of tooth-colored materials that are designed to cover the front surface of teeth. These shells are bonded to the front of the teeth.

106) What is dental crowns?
Dental crowns are tooth-shaped “caps” that are placed over teeth. The crowns, when cemented into place, fully encase the entire visible portion of a tooth that lies at and above the gum line.

107) What is dental bonding?
Dental bonding is a procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a durable plastic material) is applied to the tooth surface and hardened with a special light, which ultimately “bonds” the material to the tooth.

108) What options are available to changing the shape of my teeth?
Several different options are available to change the shape of teeth, make teeth look longer, close spaces between teeth or repair chipped or cracked teeth. Among the options are bonding, crowns, veneers, and re-contouring.

109) How effective whitening toothpastes are?
None of the home use whitening toothpastes can come even close to producing the bleaching effect you get from your dentist’s office through chair-side bleaching or power bleaching. Whitening toothpastes can lighten your tooth’s color by about one shade. In contrast, light-activated whitening conducted in your dentist’s office can make your teeth three to eight shades lighter.

110) How whitening toothpastes work?
All toothpastes help remove surface stains through the action of mild abrasives. Some whitening toothpastes contain gentle polishing or chemical agents that provide additional stain removal. Whitening toothpastes can help remove surface stains only and do not contain bleach; over-the-counter and professional whitening products contain hydrogen peroxide (a bleaching substance) that helps remove stains on the tooth surface as well as stains deep in the tooth.

111) Tell me the latest word on the safety of amalgam-type fillings?
Over the past several years, concerns have been raised about silver-colored fillings, otherwise called amalgams. Because amalgams contain the toxic substance mercury, some people think that they are responsible for causing a number of diseases, including autism, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis.

112) How air abrasion works?
The air abrasion instrument works like a mini sandblaster to spray away the decay, stain, or to prepare the tooth surface for bonding or sealant application. With air abrasion, a fine stream of particles is aimed at the tooth surface. These particles are made of silica, aluminum oxide, or a baking soda mixture and are propelled toward the tooth surface by compressed air or a gas that runs through the dental hand-piece. Small particles of decay, stain, etc., on the tooth surface are removed as the stream of particles strikes them. The remnant particles are then “suctioned” away.

113) Where air abrasion is used?
Air abrasion can be used to remove some tooth decay, to remove some old composite restorations, to prepare a tooth surface for bonding or sealants, and to remove superficial stains and discolorations.

114) What is drill-less dentistry?
Drill-less dentistry, also called air abrasion and micro-abrasion, is being offered by some dentists.

115) how long do sealants can protect the teeth?
Sealants can protect the teeth from decay for many years, but they need to be checked for chipping or wear at regular dental check-ups.

116) Is dental X-rays are safe?
Exposure to all sources of radiation including the sun, minerals in the soil, appliances in your home, and dental X-rays — can damage the body’s tissues and cells and lead to the development of cancer. Fortunately, the dose of radiation you are exposed to during the taking of X-rays is extremely small.
Advances in dentistry over the years have lead to the low radiation levels emitted by dental X-rays. Some of the improvements are new digital X-ray machines that limit the radiation beam to the small area being X-rayed, higher speed X-ray films that require shorter exposure time compared with older film speeds to get the same results, and the use of film holders that keep the film in place in the mouth (which prevents the film from slipping and the need for repeat X-rays and additional radiation exposure). Also, the use of lead-lined, full-body aprons protects the body from stray radiation (though this is almost nonexistent with the modern dental X-ray machines.) In addition, federal law requires that X-ray machines be checked for accuracy and safety every two years, with some states requiring more frequent checks.

117) Who should get dental sealants?
Typically, children should get sealants on their permanent molars and premolars as soon as these teeth come in. In this way, the dental sealants can protect the teeth through the cavity-prone years of ages 6 to 14. However, adults without decay or fillings in their molars can also benefit from sealants.

118) Explain about dental sealants?
Sealants are a thin, plastic coating that is painted on the chewing surfaces of teeth usually the back teeth (the premolars, and molars) to prevent tooth decay. The painted on liquid sealant quickly bonds into the depressions and groves of the teeth, forming a protective shield over the enamel of each tooth.