Sunday, 10 January 2016

Basic Ecology Interview Questions and Answers pdf download free

81. What is an example of intraspecific competition?
Intraspecific competition practically occurs in all species, for example, the competition of humans for a job.

82. Why is cannibalism an inharmonious intraspecific ecological interaction?
In cannibalism an individual eat other of the same species (occurs in some insects and arachnids). Since it is an interaction between beings of the same species and at least one of them is harmed (the other is benefited) the classification as inharmonious intraspecific ecological interaction is justified.
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: cannibalism

83. What are the main interspecific ecological interactions?
The main harmonious interspecific ecological interactions are protocooperation, mutualism and commensalism. The main inharmonious interspecific ecological interactions are interspecific competition, parasitism, predatism and ammensalism.

84. What is protocooperation?
Protocooperation is the ecological interaction in which both participants benefit and that is not obligatory for their survival. Protocooperation is a harmonious (positive) interspecific ecological interaction. Examples of protocooperation are: the action of the spur-winged plover that using its beak eats residuals from crocodile teeth; the removal of ectoparasites from the back of bovines by some birds that eat the parasites; the hermit crab that live inside shells over which sea anemones live (these offer protection to the crab and gain mobility to obtain food).
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: protocooperation

85. What is mutualism?
Mutualism is the ecological interaction in which both participants benefit and that is obligatory for their survival. Mutualism is a harmonious (positive) ecological interaction. Mutualism is also known as symbiosis. Examples of mutualism are: the association between microorganisms that digest cellulose and the ruminants or insects within which they live; the lichens, formed by algae or cyanobacteria that make organic material for the fungi and absorb water with their help; nitrifying bacteria of the genus Rhizobium that associated to leguminous offer nitrogen to these plants.
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: mutualism

86. What is commensalism?
Commensalism is the ecological interaction in which one individual benefit while the other is not benefited neither harmed. Commensalism is a harmonious (positive) ecological interaction, since none of the participants is harmed. Example of commensalism are the numerous bacteria that live in the skin and in the digestive tube of humans without being pathogenic neither beneficial. They are innocuous bacteria living in commensalism with humans.
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: commensalism

87. What benefits can commensalism offer to a species?
Commensalism may involve obtention of food (for example, the innocuous bacteria of the human guts), shelter or support (epiphytes on trees) and transportation (pollen carried by insects or birds). The commensalism that involves obtention of shelter is also called inquilinism.

88. What are some examples of interspecif competition?
Examples of interspecific competition are the dispute among vultures, worms, flies, and microorganisms for carrions and the competition between snakes and eagles for rodents.
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: interspecific competition

89. What is parasitism?
Parasitism is the ecological interaction in which a being lives at the expense of other. The parasite often does not cause immediate death of the host since it needs the host alive to survive.
Parasitism is an inharmonious (negative) interspecific ecological interaction, since although one participant benefit the other is harmed.
Symbiosis and Other Interactions - Image Diversity: parasitism

90. What are some examples of parasitism?
Classical examples are the parasites of humans (host), like the trypanosome that causes Chagas' disease, the HIV virus (AIDS), the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, the schistosome that causes schistosomiasis, the hookworms, etc. Other examples are tree (host) and parasitic helminths (parasite), dog (host) and lice (parasite), cattle (host) and tick (parasite), etc.

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