Thursday, 7 January 2016

Cell Biology Interview Questions and Answers for freshers pdf free download

11. Which type of cell came first in evolution the eukaryotic cell or the prokaryotic cell?
This is an interesting problem of biological evolution. The most accepted hypothesis asserts that the more simple cell, the prokaryotic cell, appeared early in evolution than the more complex eukaryotic cell. The endosymbiotic hypothesis, for example, affirms that aerobic eukaryotic cells appeared from the mutualist ecological interaction between aerobic prokaryotes and primitive anaerobic eukaryotes.

12. Concerning the presence of nucleus what is the difference between animal and bacterial cells?
Animal cells (cells of living beings of the kingdom Animalia) have an interior membrane that delimits a cell nucleus and thus they are eukaryotic cells; in these cells the genetic material is located within the nucleus. Bacterial cells (cells of living beings of the kingdom Monera) do not have organized cellular nucleus and so they are prokaryotic cells and their genetic material is found dispersed in the cytosol.

13. What are the three main parts of a eukaryotic cell?
The eukaryotic cell can be divided into two main portions: the cell membrane that separates the intracellular space from the outer space phisically delimiting the cell; the cytoplasm, the interior portion filled with cytosol (the aqueous fluid inside the cell); and the nucleus, the membrane-delimited internal region that contains the genetic material.

14. What are the main structures within the cell nucleus?
Within the cell nucleus the main structures are: the nucleolus, an optically dense region, spherical shaped, where there are concentrated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) associated to proteins (there may be more than one nucleolus in a nucleus); the chromatin, made of DNA molecules dispersed in the nuclear matrix during the cell interphase; the karyotecha, or nuclear membrane, the membrane that delimits the nucleus.

15. What are the substances that constitute the chromatin? What is the difference between chromatin and chromosome?
The chromatin, dispersed in the nucleus, is a set of filamentous DNA molecules associated to nuclear proteins called histones. Each DNA filament is a double helix of DNA and thus a chromosome.

16. How is the fluid that fills the nucleus called?
The aqueous fluid that fills the nuclear region is called karyolymph, or nucleoplasm. In the fluid there are proteins, enzymes and other important substances for the nuclear metabolism.

17. what substances is the nucleolus made? Is there a membrane around the nucleolus?
Nucleolus is a region within the nucleus made of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and proteins. It is not delimited by membrane.

18. What is the name of the membrane that delimits the nucleus? To which component of the cell structure that membrane is contiguous?
The nuclear membrane is also called karyotheca. The nuclear membrane is continuous to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

19. What are the main cytoplasmic structures present in animal cells?
The main cytoplasmic structures of the cell are the centrioles, the cytoskeleton, lysosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes.
Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cell organelles

20. What are cytoplasmic inclusions?
Cytoplasmic inclusions are cytoplasmic molecular aggregates, such as pigments, organic polymers and crystals. They are not considered cell organelles.
Fat drops and glycogen granules are examples of cytoplasmic inclusions.
Cell Structure Review - Image Diversity: cytoplasmic inclusions

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1 comment:

  1. Tks very much for your post.

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