Sunday, 10 January 2016

Most recent asked Ecology Interview Questions and Answers

51. What are the factors that for influencing photosynthesis also interfere with the gross primary productivity?
Mainly water and light, but also mineral salts, temperature, and carbon dioxide are factors that interfere with the gross primary productivity.

52. What are the destinations of the organic material fabricated by the producers?
Part of the organic material synthesized by the producers is consumed as energy source for the metabolism of the own producer individual. Other part is incorporated (into the body) and become available to heterotrophic beings of the ecosystem. In each following tropic level part of the organic material is used in the metabolism of the individuals of the level, other part is eliminated as waste and only a fraction is incorporated and become available as food for the following level.

53. What is the formula of the net primary production (NPP)? How does NPP relate to the energy pyramids?
Net primary production is the gross primary productivity less the organic material consumed as energy source in the metabolism of the producers: NPP = GPP - (organic material spent in aerobic respiration). It represents the organic material available in the first tropic level. < /FONT >
The base of the energy pyramids must represent the NPP and not the GPP since the idea of these pyramids is to show the available energy in each trophic level of the food chain.

54. What are biogeochemical cycles?
Biogeochemical cycles are representations of the circulation and recycling of matter in nature.
The main biogeochemical cycles studied in Ecology are the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the nitrogen cycle.

55. What is the respective importance of water, carbon, and nitrogen for the living beings?
Water is the main solvent of the living beings and it is necessary practically for all biochemical reactions, including as reagent of photosynthesis. Many properties of water are very important for life.
Carbon is the main chemical element of organic molecules; carbon dioxide is also reagent of photosynthesis and product of the energetic metabolism of the living beings.
Nitrogen is a fundamental chemical element of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins that in their turn are the main functional molecules of the living beings; nitrogen is also part of the nucleic acid molecules, the basis of reproduction, heredity, and protein synthesis.

56. What is the water cycle?
The water cycle represents the circulation and recycling of water in nature.
Liquid water on the planet surface is heated by the sun and turns into water vapor that gains the atmosphere. In the atmosphere large volumes of water vapor, form clouds that when cooled precipitate liquid water as rain. Therefore, water comes back to the planet surface and the cycle is completed. As possible steps of the cycle, water may still be stored in subterranean reservatory or under the form of ice in mountains and oceans and it may also be used in the metabolism of living beings, incorporated into the body of the individuals or excreted through urine, feces, and transpiration.
Image Diversity: the water cycle

57. Why is the sun the "motor" of the water cycle?
The sun can be considered the motor of the water cycle because upon its energy the transformation of liquid water into water vapor depends. Therefore, the sun is the energy source that makes water to circulate in nature.

58. What is the carbon cycle?
The carbon cycle represents the circulation and recycling of the chemical element carbon in nature because of the action of living beings.
Photosynthetic beings absorb carbon as carbon dioxide available in the atmosphere and the carbon atoms become part of glucose molecules. During the cellular respiration of these beings, part of this organic material is consumed to generate ATP and in this process, carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. Other part is incorporated by the photosynthetic organisms into the molecules that compose their structure. The carbon atoms incorporated into the producers are transferred to the next tropic level and again part is liberated by the cellular respiration of the consumers, part becomes constituent of the consumer body and part is excreted as uric acid or urea (excretes later recycled by decomposer bacteria). Therefore, carbon absorbed by the producers in photosynthesis returns to the atmosphere through cellular respiration along the food chain until the decomposers that also liberate carbon dioxide in their energetic metabolism. Under special conditions in a process, that takes millions of years carbon incorporated into organisms may also constitute fossil fuels stored in deposits under the surface of the planet as fossil fuels burn the carbon atoms return to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. The burning of vegetable fuels, like wood, also returns carbon to the atmosphere.

59. What is the main biological process that consumes carbon dioxide?
The main biological process that consumes carbon dioxide is photosynthesis.

60. How is carbon dioxide made by producers and consumers?
Carbon dioxide is made by producers and consumers through cellular respiration.

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