Thursday, 7 January 2016

Most recent asked Economic Botany Interview Questions and Answers

11. How does the odor of flower petals help pollination?
The purpose of the perfume is to attract a pollinator - insect, bat, bird or whatever. The reward for the pollinator is a meal of nectar, which is produced by the flower.

12. What is an analogy for microtubules?
Microtubules have two main functions in cells and in doing so act like a skeleton as well as like railroadtracks. Microtubules are the main structural component of the cytoskeleton in cells, which provides the cell with structure and rigidity and determines the shape of the cell. They also serve to transport vesicles and proteinswithin the cytoplasm through transport proteins called kinesins and dyneins, which act much like railroad cars.

13. What is an analogy for a smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is like a manufacturing plant, like a factory, where proteins and lipids are made. This is also where things are packaged into boxed and sent off to different places. In the cell the smooth ER is a network of membrane bound bodies which lack ribosomes (the molecules used in protein synthesis) and its primary function is to modify, encapsulate and transport newly synthesized proteins and lipids which will be secreted or remain in the cytoplasm as membrane bound vesicles. The smooth ER can also be compared to a highway, or a protein and lipid highway, if you will. It is sometimes called the transitional ER because it contains exit sites from which transport vesicles carrying these proteins and lipids bud off for transport to the Golgi apparatus. It is usually prominent in cells that specialize in lipid metabolism and synthesis.

14. What is the difference between an acid and a base?
Base is any thing, which has a capability to abstract a proton.
Using the simplest definition, an acid is something when added to water releases hydrogen ions (H+), also called protons. A base, or an alkali, is something that when added to water releases hydroxide (OH-) ions.
The strength of a basic (or alkaline) or acidic solution is measured using the pH scale. A pH of 7 is perfectly pure neutral water (neither acidic nor basic), and pH below 7 is acidic, and a pH above 7 is basic.
There is another definition, which says that an acid releases H+ and a bases remove H+ from water. Thisdefinition is a bit more general than the first one above. Note that releasing OH- is the same as removing H+. This is because when OH- mixes with H+, they form neutral H2O, and so for every OH- released, one H+ is removed by combining them into water.
The final definition of an acid and base is the most general, but the hardest to understand conceptually, and it is not always taught in high school because of this. According to this definition, acids are electron pair acceptors, and bases are electron pair donors.

15. Why does DNA twist?
If it did not twist, would you expect it to fit into the miniscule cell? As we all know, if we join all of the DNA molecules from a person's body end to end, we would get length three times the distance from the centre of the earth to the sun! Therefore, DNA does not have a choice but to follow the super solenoid structure. This is also aided by the purine-pyrimidine linkages, to balance the weight of DNA components. Why pressing down on thecover slip does not remove excess water. Because of Newton's Third Law of Motion: Every action has an equal an opposite reaction and hydraulic pressure. When you press down on the cover slip, the water underneath it pushes back against you with the same force that you are pressing down on it. If you want to get the water to moveout from under the cover slip, you need to direct it to the side. One way to do this is to lift an edge and break the suction, then set it back down on one edge first to let the water run out, then press it down. This creates a side motion so the water does not push straight up into thecover slip, but pushes at an angle, which allows it to run out.

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