Sunday, 13 December 2015

Latest Pharmacology Multiple Choice Questions And Answers

61- A 68 year old woman was admitted to hospital with evidence of biventricular cardiac failure. On examination her pulse was 100 beats per minute (sinus rhythm), and her blood pressure was 140/60 mmHg. She had haemorrhages in both fundi. Her condition improved after
intravenous diuretics.
Investigations revealed:
haemoglobin 5.6 g/dl (11.5 – 16.5)
haematocrit 0.19 (0.36 – 0.47)
MCV 118 fl (80 – 96)
MCH 33.0 pg (28 – 32)
WCC 3.4 x 109/L (4 – 11)
platelet count 95 x 109/L (150 – 400)
What is the next most appropriate step in management?
1) blood transfusion
2) bone marrow aspiration
3) intramuscular vitamin B12 alone
4) intramuscular vitamin B12 and oral folic acid together
5) oral folic acid alone

62- With regard to poisoning / overdose:
1) Phenobarbitone causes a metabolic acidosis
2) Ethylene glycol causes a metabolic alkalosis and renal failure
3) Aspirin causes acidosis due to hypoventilation
4) Methanol causes a metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap
5) Chlormethiazole causes hyperthermia and hypertension

63- Which of the following is NOT associated with hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia?
1) Acute hypoadrenalism
2) Carbenoxolone therapy
3) Co-Amilofruse therapy
4) Congestive cardiac failure.
5) Type IV renal tubular acidosis

64- A 55-year-old woman was found to have ++ glycosuria and had a maternal history of Type II diabetes mellitus. She was a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day. Examination reveals no specific abnormalities apart from a BMI of 30. Blood pressure was 132/88 mmHg.
Investigations reveal:
serum creatinine 80 ┬Ámol/L (60 – 110)
plasma glucose (fasting) 11.3 mmol/L (3.0 – 6.0)
total serum cholesterol 5.5 mmol/L (<5.2)
HDL cholesterol 1.4 mmol/L (>1.55)
What is most likely to improve her life expectancy?
1) Metformin 500 mg bd
2) Ramipril 10 mg daily
3) Simvastatin 10 mg daily
4) Stopping smoking
5) Weight loss to achieve a BMI of 25

65- Baclofen
1) acts directly on skeletal muscle
2) causes rhabdomyolysis
3) reduces cerebral but not spinal spasticity
4) cause hallucinations when withdrawn
5) reduce Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum

66- Which one of the following is correct regarding long-acting beta-2 agonists?
1) Can be used to prevent activity-induced symptoms without anti-inflammatory therapy.
2) Become less effective over time (tolerance).
3) Are beneficial in acute viral croup.
4) Protect against allergen challenge for up to 48 hours.
5) Should not be used in association with erythromycin.

67- A 50-year-old lady suffers with migraine. She smokes 20 cigarettes a day. She has found that paracetamol 1 g was not always effective in relieving her pain. Which of the following factors is the most likely to account for this problem?
1) altered volume of distribution
2) delayed gastric emptying
3) first pass metabolism
4) hepatic enzyme induction
5) reduced gut blood flow

68- In the treatment of osteoporosis, which of the following best describe the drug Raloxifene?
1) A Bisphosphonate
2) A Calcium Receptor Modulator
3) An Estrogen
4) A PTH receptor agonist
5) A Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator

69- In which of the following have randomised controlled trials shown that long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) reduces mortality?
1) Asthma
2) Cor pulmonale due to chronic airflow obstruction
3) Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis
4) Cystic fibrosis
5) Pulmonary sarcoidosis

70- A firm 2 to 3 cm mass is palpable in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast of a 52-year-old woman. There are no palpable axillary lymph nodes. A lumpectomy with axillary node dissection is performed and the breast lesion is found to have positive immunohistochemical staining for HER2/neu (c-erb B2). Staining for oestrogen and progesterone receptors is negative. Which of the following additional treatment options is most appropriate, based upon these findings?
1) Radical mastectomy
2) St John's wort
3) Tamoxifen
4) Trastuzumab
5) Vancomycin

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