Friday, 8 January 2016

Bio-technology Interview Questions and Answers

11. Is body itself a bio technology?
Yes, it has to be articulated as a technology. But not by nature, once its articulated or framed in such a way, then definitely it’s a technology. Anything which is re-framed from a naturally occurring bio logical process is called bio technology.

12. What do you mean by bio-media?
It’s a concept which means to describe the informatic reframing or biological components and its methods and processes. Its all about the process of identifying biologically and looking through the lens of informatic.

13. How is this bio technology useful in our day to day life?
Bio technology is used to help in solving the problem faced in our daily products. Yogurt, wine, cheese, and antibiotics these are all not new for human beings. This method of bio technologypromises a better way of retaining the essence and preventing disease.

14. How is the concentration of drugs in human plasma defined?
Some drugs bind extensively to plasma proteins (Warfarin binds 99%) whereas others have virtually no binding.
Extraction depends on the type of drug - there are different standard techniques for acidic, basic, and neutral drugs - and, indeed, some drugs need specific extraction techniques.
It is important for you doing bioequivalence studies to know exactly the proportion of drug extracted but such controls are again specific for each drug and use specific marker compounds.

15. Why is buprenorphine less addictive than other opioids (like fentanyl) - is it explainable by its strength of binding to the common receptor, or?
Buprenorphine is what is referred to as a partial agonist - i.e. it binds to the receptor but even at its maximum cannot give as much of an effect as a full agonist (such as morphine) - it is, thus, also a partial antagonist (partially inhibits the actions of full agonists).
As addiction is likely to be linked to strength of the effect of the drug, buprenorphine has less effect and, therefore, less addiction.

16. Is Phenoxyethanol harmful?
Phenoxyethanol is harmful and can be absorbed through the skin - official sites for toxicity data, however, show little toxicity in man and some toxicity (irritation) with high doses in animals. Phenoxyethanol is in cosmetics as a bactericide (kills bacteria).

17. What is the definition of “Biomedical”? What topics cover the Study of Biomedical Sciences?
The term "biomedical" covers a vast range of subjects - everything that relates biology to medicine. This can range from the obvious like Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Genetics to the less obvious like Botany (most drugs were originally derived from plants and, thus, these is a big science called Phytopharmacology).

18. Do you know how the dose for children is being estimated based on preclinical data?
There are a number of ways of estimating children's doses from preclinical (adult) data - often depends on the therapeutic index of the drug in question (the wider the therapeutic window the less accurate the child's dose needs to be). Sometimes straight weight-basis i.e. 7kg child gets 1/10 dose of 70kg adult.
More accurate (so they say) is a dose based on body surface area (child's surface area is greater in proportion to its body weight than an adult is). There are normograms to calculate surface area from weight and height of child.
All of these may be wrong if clearance of drug in child is significantly different from adult e.g. different metabolism or different route of clearance.

19. Which type of immunoglobulin level will increase when an individual is exposed to a parasite?
Serum IgE levels will increase and remain until the parasite is washed out from the body.

20. What are allergens?
Allergens are non-parasitic antigens. They are capable of stimulating hypersensitive reactions in allergy conditions in an individual.

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