Sunday, 10 January 2016

Freshers Ecology Interview Questions and Answers pdf

21. Why the tropical forests are also known as stratified forests?
In tropical forests, tall trees of several species have their crowns forming a superior layer under which diverse other trees and plants develop forming other inferior layers. From the upper layer to the inferior layers the penetration of light lowers gradually and the exposition to wind and rain, the moisture and the temperature vary. Different compositions of abiotic factor condition the prevailing of different vegetation in each layer.

22. What is the typical vegetation of the grasslands?
Grasslands are mainly formed of herbaceous (nonwoody) vegetation: grass, bushes, and small trees.
Biomes - Image Diversity: grasslands

23. How are the grasslands of North America and of South America respectively called?
The steppe grasslands of North America are called prairies. The grasslands of South America are known as "pampas" (the steppe grassland) and "cerrado" (the savannah grassland).
Biomes - Image Diversity: prairies pampas cerrado

24. How are grasslands classified?
Grasslands may be classified into steppes and savannahs. In the steppes, the prevailing vegetation is grass, like in the pampas of South America and in the prairies of North America. The fauna is mainly formed by herbivores, like rodents and ungulates. The savannahs present small trees, like for example the Brazilian cerrado or the African savannahs. The fauna is diverse; in the Brazilian cerrado there are animals like emus, lizards, armadillos, jaguars, etc., and many types of insects; the African savannahs are the home of great herbivores and carnivores, like zebras, giraffes, antilopes, lions and leopards.
Biomes - Image Diversity: savannah

25. What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the deserts?
The predominant fauna of the desertic ecosystems is formed by reptiles, like lizards and snakes, terrestrial arthropods and small rodents. In these areas plants very adapted to dry climate may be found, like the cactus, that are plants that do not have real leaves and thus lose less water, along with grasses and bushes near places where water is available.
Biomes - Image Diversity: deserts

26. Which terrestrial vertebrate group is extremely rare in deserts?
Amphibians are terrestrial vertebrates extremely rare in desertic environments (although there are few species adapted to this type of ecosystem). Amphibians are rare in deserts because they do not have permeable skin and so they easily lose water by evaporation and desiccate. They also need an aquatic environment to reproduce, since their fecundation is external and their larva is water-dependent.

27. What are plankton, nekton, and benthos?
Plankton, nekton, and benthos are the three groups into which aquatic living beings may be divided.
The plankton is formed by the algae and small animals that float near the water surface carried by the stream. The nekton is composed of animals that actively swim and dive in water, like fishes, turtles, whales, sharks, etc. The benthos comprehends the animals ecologically linked to the bottom, including many echinoderms, benthonic fishes, crustaceans, mollusks, poriferans and annelids.
Biomes - Image Diversity: plankton nekton benthos

28. What are the phytoplankton and the zooplankton?
Phytoplankton and zooplankton are divisions of the plankton. The phytoplankton comprehends the autotrophic floating beings: algae and cyanobacteria. The zooplankton is formed by the heterotrophic planktonic beings: protozoans, small crustaceans, cnidarians, larvae, etc.

29. What is the group of aquatic beings composed of large number of photosynthetic beings?
A large number of photosynthetic beings is found in the plankton, i.e., in the surface of aquatic ecosystems. This is because light is abundant on the surface.

30. What is the primary energy source for life on earth?
The primary energy source for life on earth is the sun. The sun plays the important role of keeping the planet warmed and it is the source of the luminous energy used in photosynthesis. This energy is converted into organic material by the photosynthetic autotrophic beings and consumed by the other living beings.
Image Diversity: the sun

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