Sunday, 10 January 2016

Ecology Interview Questions and Answers for freshers pdf free download

11. What are the processes that autotrophic beings use to produce organic material from inorganic substances?
Autotrophic beings make organic material by photosynthesis or by chemosynthesis. There are photosynthetic autotrophs, like plants, and chemosynthetic autotrophs, like some bacteria.

12. What is a biome?
Biome is a prevailing ecosystem constituted by similar biotic and abiotic factors present in one or more regions of the planet.

13. What are the major terrestrial biomes?
The major terrestrial biomes are tundras, taigas (or boreal forest), temperate forests, tropical forests, grasslands and deserts.

14. What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the tundras?
Tundras have vegetation formed mainly by mosses and lichens. In the fauna the dense furred animals, like caribous, musk oxen and polar bears, and migratory birds are found.
Biomes - Image Diversity: tundras

15. What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the taigas?
Taiga, or the boreal forest, is characterized by coniferous trees, pine forests. There are also mosses, lichens, small bushes, and angiosperms. In the taiga many mammals, like moose, wolves, foxes and rodents, migratory birds and great diversity of insects are found.
Biomes - Image Diversity: taigas

16. What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the temperate forests?
In the temperate forest, deciduous trees predominate. Mammals are found in great number, like bears and deers.
Biomes - Image Diversity: temperate forests

17. What are deciduous trees?
Deciduous trees are plants that lose their leaves in a period of the year. In the case of the deciduous of the temperate forest, the fall of the leaves occurs in the autumn. The loss of leaves is a preparation to face the cold months of the winter: roots, stem and branches are more resistant to low temperature and snow than the leaves; without leaves the metabolic rate of the plant is reduced; the decaying fallen leaves help to nourish the soil.
Biomes - Image Diversity: deciduous trees

18. What is the typical localization of the tropical forests regarding latitude?
Tropical rain forests, like the Amazon forest and the Congo forest, are typically located in low latitude, i.e., in the equatorial and tropical zones.
Biomes - Image Diversity: tropical forests

19. What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the tropical forests?
In the vegetation of the tropical forests, broad-leafed evergreen trees predominate. On the top of the trees, epiphytes and lianas grow. Many varieties of pteridophytes can be found in these forests. Regarding the fauna, the abundance, and diversity is also great: there are monkeys, rodents, bats, insectivores, felines, reptiles, aves, amphibians, and invertebrates, mainly insects.

20. How can the abundance and diversity of living beings in the tropical forests be explained?
The biodiversity of these ecosystems can be explained by the great availability of the main abiotic factors for photosynthesis. Since these factors are abundant, plants can perform maximum photosynthetic activity, living and reproducing easily. With great amount and diversity of producers (autotrophs), the consumers (heterotrophic animals and microorganisms) also have abundant food and a complex food web emerges creating many different ecological niches to be explored. So it is possible the appearing of varied living beings as well as the existence of large populations.

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