Thursday, 29 October 2015

Basic General Pharmacology Objective Type Questions And Answers

61. Drug that show nonlinear pharmacokinetics have which property?
(a) A constant ratio of drug metabolites is formed as the administered dose increases
(b) The elimination half-life (t½) increases as the administered dose increases
(c) The area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC) increases in direct proportion to an increase in the administered dose
(d) Both low and high doses follow first-order elimination kinetics
(e) The steady-state drug concentration increases in direct proportion to the dosing rate
Ans: B

62. The loading dose (DL) of a drug is usually based on the
(a) Total body clearance (ClT) of the drug
(b) Percentage of drug bound to plasma proteins GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY 7
(c) Fraction of drug excreted unchanged in the urine
(d) Apparent volume of distribution (VD) and desired drug concentration in plasma
(e) Area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve (AUC)
Ans: D

63. The renal clearance of insulin is used as a measurement of
(a) Effective renal blood flow
(b) Rate of renal drug excretion
(c) Intrinsic enzyme activity
(d) Active renal secretion
(e) Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
Ans: E

64. All of the following statements about plasma protein binding of a drug are true except
(a) Displacement of a drug from plasma protein binding sites results in a transient increased volume of distribution (VD)
(b) Displacement of a drug from plasma protein binding sites makes more free drug available for glomerular filtration
(c) Displacement of a potent drug that is normally more than 95% bound may cause toxicity
(d) Albumin is the major protein involved in protein binding of drugs
(e) Drugs that are highly bound to plasma proteins generally have a greater VD compared with drugs that are highly bound to tissue proteins
Ans: E

65. _______ is expressed in both the intestinal epithelium and the kidney.
(a) CYP2D6
(b) CYP1A1/2
(c) CYP3A4
(d) CYP2E1
Ans: C

66. The initial distribution of a drug into tissue is determined chiefly by the
(a) Rate of blood flow to tissue
(b) Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
(c) Stomach emptying time
(d) Affinity of the drug for tissue
(e) Plasma protein binding of the drug
Ans: A

67. Which tissue has the greatest capacity to bio-transform drugs?
(a) Brain
(b) Kidney
(c) Liver
(d) Lung
(e) Skin
Ans: C

68. The principle of superposition in designing multiple-dose regimens assumes that
(a) Each dose affects the next subsequent dose causing nonlinear elimination
(b) Each dose of drug is eliminated by zero-order elimination
(c) Steady-state plasma drug concentration are reached at approximately 10 half-lives
(d) Early doses of drug do not affect subsequent doses
(e) The fraction of drug absorbed is equal to the fraction of drug eliminated
Ans: D

69. Which equation is true for a zero-order reaction rate of drug ?
(a) dA/dt = - k
(b) t½ = 0.693/k
(c) A = A0e -kt
Ans: A

70. Which of the following functional groups is most susceptible to hydrolysis ?
(a) R – CO – R
(b) R – COOR
(c) R – O - R
(d) R – NH- CH3
(e) R – COOH
Ans: B

71. Monomer units of proteins are known as
(a) Monosaccharides
(b) Prosthetic groups
(c) Amino acids
(d) Purines
(e) Nucleosides
Ans: C

72. Glucose is a carbohydrate that cannot be hydrolyzed into a simpler substance. It is best described as
(a) A sugar
(b) A monosaccharide
(c) A disaccharide
(d) A polysaccharide
(e) An oligosaccharide
Ans: B

73. All of the following carbohydrates are considered to be polysaccharides except
(a) Heparin
(b) Starch
(c) Glycogen
(d) Maltose
(e) Cellulose
Ans: D

74. Which of the following compounds are considered the building blocks of nucleic acids ?
(a) Nucleotides
(b) Nucleosides
(c) Monosaccharides
(d) Purines
(e) Amino acids
Ans: A

75. Which of the following terms best describes a co-factor that is firmly bound to an apoenzyme?
(a) Holoenzyme
(b) Prosthetic group
(c) Coenzyme
(d) Transferase
(e) Heteropolysaccharide
Ans: B

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