Thursday, 29 October 2015

General Pharmacology Objective Type Questions And Answers

16. Animal testing of potential new therapeutic agents
(a) Extends over a time period of at least 3 years in order to discover late toxicities
(b) Requires the use of at least two primate species, eg. Monkey and baboon
(c) Requires the submission of histopathologic slides and specimens to the FDA for government evaluation
(d) Has good predictability for drug allergy-type reactions
(e) May be abbreviated in the case of some very toxic agents used in cancer
Ans: A

17. The “dominant lethal” test involves the treatment of a male adult animal with a chemical before mating; the pregnant female is later examined for fetal death and abnormalities. The dominant lethal test therefore is a test of 
(a) Teratogenicity
(b) Mutagenicity
(c) Carcinogenicity
(d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
Ans: B

18. The Ames test is a method for detecting
(a) Carcinogenesis in rodents
(b) Carcinogenesis in primates
(c) Teratogenesis in any mammalian species
(d) Teratogenesis in primates
(e) Mutagenesis in bacteria
Ans: E

19. “Nicotinic” sites include all of the following except
(a) Bronchial smooth muscle
(b) Adrenal medullary cells
(c) Parasympathetic ganglia
(d) Skeletal muscle
(e) Sympathetic ganglia
Ans: A

20. A good example of chemical antagonism
(a) Heparin & Protamine
(b) Protamine & Zinc
(c) Heparin & Prothrombin
(d) All the above
Ans: A

21. Which of the following agents is a prodrug that is much less toxic in mammals than in insects ?
(a) Acetylcholine
(b) Bethanechol
(c) Physostigmine
(d) Pilocarpine
(e) Neostigmine
Ans: A

22. Phenylephrine causes
(a) Constriction of vessels in the nasal mucosa
(b) Increased gastric secretion and motility
(c) Increased skin temperature
(d) Miosis
(e) All of the above
Ans: A

23. Pretreatment with propranolol will block which one of the following ?
(a) Methacholine-induced tachycardia
(b) Nicotine-induced hypertension
(c) Norepinephrine-induced bradycardia
(d) Phenylephrine-induced mydriasis
Ans: A

24. Most drug receptors are
(a) Small molecules with a molecular weight between 100 and 1000
(b) Lipids arranged in a bilayer configuration
(c) Proteins located on cell membranes or in the cytosol
(d) DNA molecules
(e) RNA molecules
Ans: C

25. With regard to distribution of a drug from the blood into tissues
(a) Blood flow to the tissue is an important determinant
(b) Solubility of the drug in the tissue is an important determinant
(c) Concentration of the drug in the blood is an important determinant
(d) Size (volume) of the tissue is an important determinant
(e) All of the above are important determinants
Ans: E

26. The pH value is calculated mathematically as the
(a) Log of the hydroxyl ion (OH–) concentration
(b) Negative log of the OH– concentration
(c) Log of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration
(d) Negative log of the H+ concentration
(e) Ratio of H+/OH– concentration
Ans: D

27. Which property is classified as colligative?
(a) Solubility of a solute
(b) Osmotic pressure
(c) Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration
(d) Dissociation of a solute
(e) Miscibility of the liquids
Ans: B

28. The colligative properties of a solution are related to the
(a) pH of the solution
(b) Number of ions in the solution
(c) Total number of solute particles in the solution
(d) Number of unionized molecules in the solution
(e) pKa of the solution
Ans: C

29. The pH of a buffer system can be calculated with the
(a) Noyes – Whitney equation
(b) Henderson – Hasselbalch equation
(c) Michaelis – Menten equation
(d) Yong equation
(e) Stokes equation
Ans: B

30. Which mechanism is most often responsible for chemical degradation?
(a) Racemization
(b) Photolysis
(c) Hydrolysis
(d) Decarboxylation
(e) Oxidation
Ans: C

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